Retinoschisis means separation of the retina of the eye in two layers. There are two forms of this disorder. It usually occurs in middle age or later, but may occur earlier, and is sometimes called senile retinoschisis. The other form is present at birth (congenital) and mainly affects children and young people. It is known as juvenile Retinoschisis, that is X-linked. The disorder is characterized by a slow, progressive loss of visual field portions corresponding to areas of the retina that have become separated. Any form may be associated with the development of blisters (cysts) in the retina.

In more advanced stages, Retinoschisis can lead to a serious vision loss. Female carriers rarely have vision problems. Disease is caused by mutations in the RS1, including mutations, nonsense and splice site, deletions and insertions.

Symptoms of Retinoschisis

The stratification of the retina is the main clinical feature of Retinoschisis. It occurs in the retinal nerve fiber layer. It is believed that Retinoschisis is the result of reduced mobility of muller cells. Retinoschisis accompanied by degenerative changes in the retina, represents portions of gold and silver, white tree like structures are formed by the abnormal blood vessels, which increase permeability of the walls.

On the periphery are often formed giant retinal cysts, surrounded by pigment. This form of the disease is called bullous, usually seen in young children and is combined with a squint and nystagmus. Retinal cysts can spontaneously subside. With the progression of Retinoschisis develops the glial proliferation or bleeding in the cavity of the cyst.

By fusion strands of tension arises from the retina (traction), which can lead to traction retinal tears and detachment. In the macular region there are star-like folds or radial lines in the shape of a star (“spokes in the wheel”).

Retinal changes can be observed in the center and the outermost periphery (for myopia), oval visible bubbles of different sizes with gray tone and structure. Depending on the location and size of Retinoschisis reduces visual function, especially in cystic or lattice degeneration of the retina to break it in the macular area.

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